Featured post

Top 5 books to refer for a VHDL beginner

VHDL (VHSIC-HDL, Very High-Speed Integrated Circuit Hardware Description Language) is a hardware description language used in electronic des...

Sunday 9 September 2012

Compiler Directives

Formal Definition

Compiler directives are instructions affecting the compilation.

Simplified Syntax




`default_nettype net_type_identifier

`define macro_name macro_text

`define macro_name(list_of_arguments) macro_text

`undef macro_name

`ifdef macro_name





`include "filename"


`timescale time_unit / time_precision





All compiler directives are preceded by an accent grave (`) character. Compiler directives work from the point where they were used until the end of compilation or until a point where they are used again (even if the next usage occurs in another file).

`celldefine and `endcelldefine

These directives mark modules as cell modules (Example 1). They should be used in pairs outside the module definition.


This directive sets net type used in implicit net declarations (Example 2). The default type is a wire. The `default_nettype directive should be used outside the module definition. The directive parameter can be one of following types:

wire, tri, tri0, tri1, wand, triand, wor, trior, trireg.

`define and `undef

These directives define and undefine text macros that can be used as a text substitution (Example 3). This is very useful in modeling because all changes can be applied in one place of the source code (in macro definition).

A macro can be defined with arguments, so every macro call can be followed by actual parameters.

The compiler recognizes a macro by its name preceded by accent grave (`) character.

`ifdef, `else, and `endif

These directives can be used to decide which lines of Verilog code should be included for the compilation (Example 4).

The `ifdef directive checks if a macro name that follows this directive is defined. If it is, then all lines between `ifdef and `else will be included. Otherwise, only lines between `elseand `endif will be compiled.


The `include directive (Example 4) inserts the contents of a specified file into a file in which it was called. The file name should be given in quotation marks (") and it can be given using full or relative path.


This compiler directive turns off all previously used compiler directives.


This directive specifies time unit and time precision for simulation of modules that follow it (Example 5).

The time unit specifies the unit of measurement for times and delays.

The time precision specifies how delay values should be rounded during the simulation.

The time precision value should be equal or smaller than the time unit value.

Both time precision and time unit should be made up of an integer number and a character string that represent a unit of time. The valid numbers are: 1, 10, and 100. The valid characters are:
s, ms, us, ns, ps, and fs.

Actual time units and time precision values can be displayed by the $printtimescale system task.

`unconnected_drive and `nounconnected_drive

These compiler directives define how unconnected input ports of modules should be treated. They should be enclosed between pair of `unconnected_drive and`nounconnected_drive directives (Example 6).

The `unconnected_drive takes one parameter - pull0 or pull1. If pull0 is used then all unconnected ports will be pulled down. If pull1 is used then all unconnected ports will be pulled up.

These directives should be used outside any module definition.


Example 1

module my_and(y, a, b);
output y;
input a, b;
  assign y = a & b;

Module my_and is marked as a cell module.

Example 2

`default_nettype tri

The default net type is set to tri.

Example 3

`define SIZE 8
`define xor_b(x,y) (x & !y)|(!x & y)
//These text macros can be used as follow:
reg [`SIZE - 1 : 0] data_out;
c = `xor_b(a, b);
`undef SIZE

Example 4

`ifdef behavioral
  `include "groupA_beh.v ";
  `include "groupB_beh.v ";
  `include "ctrl_beh.v ";
  `include "groupA_synth.v ";
  `include "groupB_ synth.v ";
  `include "ctrl_ synth.v ";

If a 'behavioral' text macro is defined in a file then the behavioral models from the files: groupA_beh.v, groupB_beh.v, and ctrl_beh.v, will be included. Otherwise synthesizable models from groupA_synth.v, groupB_synth.v, and ctrl_synth.v, will be included.

Example 5

`timescale 10 ns / 100 ps

The time unit is set to 10 ns. During the simulation all delay values will be multiplied by 10 ns, and all delays will be rounded with 100 ps precision.

Example 6

`unconnected_drive pull1
module my_and(y, a, b);
output y;
input a, b;
  assign y = a & b;
module test;
reg b;
wire y;
  my_and u1 (y, ,b);

The a terminal of u1 will be pulled up (set to 1).

Important Notes

  • All compiler directives can be set to their default values by `resetall

No comments:

Post a Comment

Please provide valuable comments and suggestions for our motivation. Feel free to write down any query if you have regarding this post.