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Top 5 books to refer for a VHDL beginner

VHDL (VHSIC-HDL, Very High-Speed Integrated Circuit Hardware Description Language) is a hardware description language used in electronic des...

Tuesday 31 December 2013

Run-time configurations in OVM

Overriding or changing the existing configuration of VE components from testcases/sequences is something needed every now and then while working in system verilog based environment.  Also in many circumstances we need to share some variables/flags between multiple components of env(ovm_env) not necessarily through the TLMs.

Some of the examples are like,

· Enabling/disabling specific streams of scoreboard.

· Enabling/disabling specific checkers after specific sequences are executed.

· Informing driver/sequencer to inject error into some Nth packet  etc...

Let’s see and understand how this could be achieved in OVM based system-verilog environment. OVM’s configuration table and its methods provide easy way to achieve this.

Let’s assume that one needs to disable the specific stream of scoreboard using OVM’s configuration table from testcases.

Step 1: Define a configuration class containing all the parameters/configuration fields which need to be changed run-time,

class xyz_config extends ovm_object;

  bit sb_stream_disable;


    `ovm_field_int(sb_stream_disable, OVM_ALL_ON)




endclass : xyz_config

Based on the complexity of the environment you can also create multiple configuration classes to configure specific agents or specific set of components.

Step 2: Use the configuration class in scoreboard to disable the applicable data-stream.

class xyz_scoreboard extends ovm_scoreboard;

  xyz_config cfg;


    `ovm_object_utils(cfg, OVM_ALL_ON)



  //Run thread

  task run();

  //Use the cfg.disable_sb_stream to disable the scoreboard data stream


  endtask : run

endclass : xyz_scoreboard

As it is specified here, `ovm_object_utils is must here. It 'gets' the configuration instance from the OVM’s configuration table for ‘this` class.

Step 3: From the OVM based testcases disable the scoreboard at required point of time in the simulation.

class test extends ovm_test;

  xyz_cfg cfg = new();

  function void build();


    //Sharing the config. instance at target path.


  endfunction : build

  task run();

    //Some test code

    //After some time disable the scoreboard stream

    cfg.disable_sb_stream = 1;

   //Other code

  endtask : run

endclass : test

As you can see, one needs to ‘new’ the config. instance and share it with required classes using set_config_object method of ovm. The usage of set_config_object function with proper arguments is one of the crucial point here.
Let’s understand what arguments should be passed to this function,

1st argument is a string which specifies the target path where configuration needs to be shared. One could also use wildcard expressions here as env.*

2nd argument specifies the string-instance name of the object.

3rd argument is the object handle.

4th argument specifies whether object needs to be cloned before passing it to targeted component. For run-time passing set it to 0. This means all the components in env. which attempt to get the "cfg" from configuration table will use the same object throughout the simulation.

In cases where you have only few fields to share, you can also use OVM’sset_field_int and get_field_int methods.

The only additional step needed to pass the config. runtime is to call theapply_config_settings() method on the targeted component, as explained inthis thread under OVM forum.

Enjoy Configuring!!

Thursday 12 December 2013

Broadcom releases satellite-constellation location IC

8521338394_ec9d0e1f06_c Broadcom Corporation has introduced a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) chip, designated BCM47531, that generates positioning data from five satellite constellations simultaneously (GPS, GLONASS, QZSS, SBAS and BeiDou), totaling 88 satellites. The newly added Chinese BeiDou constellation increases the number of satellites available to a smartphone, enhancing navigation accuracy, particularly in urban settings where buildings and obstructions can cause interference.

The company’s new GNSS SoC is based on its widely deployed architecture that reduces the “time to first fix” (TTFF) and allows smartphones to quickly establish location and rapidly deliver mapping data. The SoC also features a tri-band tuner that enables smartphones to receive signals from all major navigation bands (GPS, GLONASS, QZSS, SBAS, and BeiDou) simultaneously.

The BCM47531 platform is available with Broadcom’s Location Based Services (LBS) technology that delivers satellite assistance data to the device and provides an initial fix time within seconds, instead of the minutes that may be required to receive orbit data from the satellites themselves.

The BCM47531 brings a number of powerful features to the table:

  • Simultaneous support of five constellations (GPS, GLONASS, QZSS,SBAS and BeiDou) allows for position calculations based on measurements from any of 88 satellites.
  • Broadcom's tri-band tuner brings the ability to receive all navigation bands, GPS (which includes QZSS and SBAS), GLONASS and BeiDou simultaneously to the commercial GNSS market without having to reconfigure and hop between bands.
  • Utilizes BeiDou signals for up to 2x improved positioning accuracy.
  • Best-in-class Assisted GNSS (AGNSS) data available worldwide from Broadcom's hosted reference network.
  • Allows a device to interchangeably use the best signal from any satellite regardless of the constellation, ensuring better accuracy in urban and mountainous environments.
  • Features advanced digital signal processing for interference rejection that enables satellite signal search and tracking during LTE transmission.
  • Leverages Broadcom's connectivity solutions including Wi-Fi, Bluetooth Smart, Near Field Communications (NFC), Instant Messaging System (IMES) and handset inertial sensor data for best indoor/outdoor location.

Nanobubbles with graphene - diamond substrate

Observing HighPressure Chemistry in Graphene Bubbles<br /> Scientists at the National University of Singapore have come up with a way to trap liquids inside nanoscale bubbles made of graphene, topping a diamond substrate. "We discovered a way to bond the two materials together by heating the diamond to its reconstruction temperature where its surface hydrogen is desorbed," said Kian Ping Loh, the research team leader.

The team were able to use these graphene bubbles as high pressure chemical reactors to perform reactions that are normally forbidden, such as fullerene polymerisation.

Anvil cells generate extremes of pressure by applying a force over as small an area as possible. As one of the thinnest elastic membranes in existence, graphene can be strain-engineered to form nanometre bubbles; spaces small enough to reach extremes of pressure when heated.2 Thanks to the bubbles’ impermeability to almost any fluid, this implies that graphene could be used to seal and pressurise fluids in nano-sized liquid cells.


Saturday 28 September 2013

China used more than half of world's ICs in 2012

0023ae82ca0f13af1f6d03 China's semiconductor use has hit a record high and accounts for more than half of the global market, but the country is overly dependent on foreign suppliers for relevant products, according to a PricewaterhouseCoopers report issued on Thursday.

With an 8.7 percent growth in 2012, China's semiconductor use was 52.5 percent of the total worldwide, said a PwC report titled China's Impact on the Semiconductor Industry - 2013 Update. Semiconductors act as an engine now driving an increasing amount of the technology in people's lives.

The growth in Chinese semiconductor use is a remarkable contrast to the global market for semiconductors, which experienced an overall decline of3 percent in 2012, the report said.

China is expected to continue its domination of semiconductor purchasing in the foreseeable future with its market share possibly reaching 60 percent by 2017,Raman Chitkara, PwC's global technology and semiconductor leader, said in an interview with China Daily.

"One of the major reasons why China has grown so big in semiconductor consumption is that the country isrising to become the world's capital of electronic manufacturing," Chitkara said.

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Sunday 15 September 2013

India Plans To Build 2 Wafer Fabs

FAB_INDIA The government of India on Thursday approved "in principle" a plan to construct and equip two wafer fabrication facilities in the country, in a move designed to reduce India's reliance on imported semiconductors. Two consortia will go ahead with the twin fab projects. One is led by STMicroelectronics, an integrated device manufacturer, and the other is spearheaded by Tower Semiconductor, a silicon foundry. These companies will add their names to list of VLSI companies in India and boost the manufacturing capability.
"The Cabinet has given in-principle approval for setting up of semiconductor wafer fabrication manufacturing facilities," Information and Broadcasting Minister Manish Tewari told reporters after a meeting of the Union Cabinet, chaired by Prime Minister Manmohan Singh.
After considering proposals from two consortia, the government took the decision. The government received proposals from two consortiums to set up chip fabrication units in the country. One was led by Israel's Tower Jazz and the other was led by Geneva–based chipmaker STMicroelectronics.
Israel-based foundry chipmaker Tower Semiconductor Ltd, which operates under the brand name TowerJazz, partnered with IBM and Indian infrastructure conglomerate Jaypee Associates to build and operate a 300mm chip facility in India. On the other hand, STMicroelectronics partnered with Hindustan Semiconductor Manufacturing Corp. (HSMC).
Welcoming the government's decision, India Electronics & Semiconductor Association (IESA) President PVG Menon said, "The IESA deems the fab a highly strategic game changer for India. Some of the world's leading economies including the USA, France, Germany, Ireland, Japan, Singapore, Taiwan and China besides a number of developing economies like Malaysia and Israel have their own fabs. These fabs continue to contribute significantly to the growth and development of the economy of their respective countries and we hope that this would be the case in India as well."
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Thursday 12 September 2013

Cisco’s nPower chips for moving data at 400 Gbps

cisco_networking_chip Semiconductors continue to advance, as a slew of announcements by Intel and Apple’s new A7 processor showed this week. But don’t forget about Cisco Systems.

The biggest provider of routing and switching systems has long retained the capability to design specialized processors for its hardware, as well as turn to off-the-shelf chips from commercial suppliers where that makes the most sense. Now Cisco designers have come up with another singular piece of home-grown silicon.

It’s a new product line called the nPower, and Cisco says the chips can pump as much as 400 gigabits of data per second. By contrast, the company’s prior technology could handle 140 gigabits and required more than one chip, Cisco says. The new capacity translates into hundreds of millions of transactions per second.

To what end? Of course, computer and smartphone users will continue to watch more YouTube videos and the like. But Surya Panditi, Cisco’s senior vice president and general manager of engineering, says a key driver for the technology is a coming change in the nature of network traffic.

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Wednesday 4 September 2013

Android Kitkat

 VLSI-Encyclopedia-Android-KitkatGoogle recently announced its latest version of Android - 4.3 Jelly Bean, which turned out to be nothing to write home about. Ever since then, the next iteration of Android OS has taken the spotlight and has been the talk of the town.

Just when all of us thought that Android 5.0 Key Lime Pie would be the next upcoming version of the Android OS, Google has announced that the successor of the Android 4.3 Jelly Bean would be named KitKat (yeah, the brand) and it is Android 4.4, not 5.0 as rumored before.

Sundar Pichai, the Android and Chrome head has confirmed the naming scheme of the next version of Android. Android 4.4 KitKat is named after Neslte's popular candy bar, which is trademarked and licensed by Hershey in the US.

Google also says that "it's our goal with Android KitKat to make an amazing Android experience available for everybody". The bold statement also suggests that Google plans to make use of its next iteration of Android in smart watches, gaming consoles and other electronic gadgets.

Here's the list of past Android versions with the dessert naming scheme:

Android 1.5: Cupcake

Android 1.6: Donut

Android 2.0: Eclair

Android 2.2: Froyo

Android 2.3: Gingerbread

Android 3.0: Honeycomb

Android 4.0: Ice Cream Sandwich

Android 4.1: Jelly Bean

Android 4.2: Jelly Bean

Android 4.3: Jelly Bean

Android 4.4: KitKat


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Tuesday 3 September 2013

Microsoft To Acquire Nokia's Devices And Services

nokia-lumia-800 Nokia, once a world leader in the mobile phone market, has had a tough few years and attempts by the company to join in on the smartphone explosion did not go well.

Nokia has seem somewhat of a resurgence lately with a series of high quality smartphones on the Windows Phone platform. Many of the phones such as the Lumia 928, 928 and 1020 with it's 41 megapixel are excellent devices and offer a real choice for anyone wanting to escape the ecosystems of Apple and Android. In fact the majority of users who actually try their Windows Phones quickly find that they enjoy the very different experience they have had with their previous smartphones. The problem for Nokia and Microsoft was getting users to even think about separating from their iPhone or Android device. 

According to the companies' press releases, 32,000 people will transfer across Microsoft, including 4,700 people in Finland and 18,300 employees directly involved in product manufacture. If you thought it was only the Windows Phone component of the phone business, you'd be wrong: Microsoft will also take into ownership Nokia's Asha range of feature phones. Patent-wise, Microsoft gets 10-year non-exclusive license to its Finnish partner's library of ideas and "reciprocal rights" to use Microsoft patents within its HERE mapping services. While Microsoft will be able to use the Nokia branding on its products, the Finnish company will now focus on its mapping, infrastructure and advanced tech arms.

In 2011, after writing a memo that said Nokia lacked the in-house technology and needed to jump off a "burning platform", Elop made the controversial decision to use Microsoft's Windows Phone for smartphones, rather than Nokia's own software or Google's (GOOG.O) ubiquitous Android operating system.

The deal will see Microsoft taking full control over Nokia's Smart Devices and Mobile Phones business units, which produce the Lumia family of smartphones and low-cost featurephones respectively. Nokia, meanwhile, retains its telecommunications hardware business Nokia Siemens Networks, Here location-based services arm, and its patent portfolio under the Advanced Technologies division. These patents are to be licensed to Microsoft for at least a ten-year period, the agreement states.

The acquisition will truly allow  Microsoft to enter the market in direct competition with its Windows Phone licensees. It's a move that was first telegraphed by the launch of the Surface family, which put the company in direct competition with third part manufacturer's in the Windows 8 and Windows RT tablet markets.
Nokia first started producing phones back in 1996 and for many years they were one of main innovators of smartphones. Of course the release of the iPhone in 2007 and the emergence of Android devices began to strangle Nokia. During the past couple of years Microsoft has provided a kind of life boat to Nokia with their Windows Phones and now it looks like Microsoft has taken over the reins entirely.
Time will tell for both Nokia and Microsoft, but at this very early point I believe it is a good move for both companies and consumers.

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Sunday 1 September 2013

VLSI Project And Training At Ahmedabad

Chip design in India has been identified as a prominent industry to support the already achieved development in IT field. With growing design houses day by day, a large pool of highly skilled individuals is needed to meet this demand. But, a potential gap was evident in the expectations of the industry and the output from academic institutions.

Realizing this need for trained manpower, we had launched a Certificate in Digital VLSI Design with emphasis on Digital CMOS circuit design, VLSI design flows, verification and testing including a minor and a major project. This course will be effective in providing potential engineers with exposure to both front-end and back-end processes in VLSI Design.

At Ahmedabad few institutions are offering courses in VLSI Front-end designing with following course contents.

Advance Digital Design

  • Digital Logic Fundamentals
  • Combinational logic design
  • Sequential logic design
  • Programmable logic
  • State machines
  • VHDL Overview and Concepts
  • Levels of Abstraction
  • Entity, Architecture
  • Data Types and declaration
  • Enumerated Data Types
  • Relational, Logical, Arithmetic Operators
  • Signal and Variables, Constants
  • Process Statement
  • Concurrent Statements
  • When-else, With-select
  • Sequential Statement
  • If-then-else, Case
  • Slicing and Concatenation
  • Loop Statements
  • Delta Delay Concept
  • Arrays, Memory Modeling, FSM
  • Writing Procedures
  • Writing Functions
  • Behavioral / RTL Coding
  • Operator Overloading
  • Structural Coding
  • Component declarations and installations
  • Generate Statement
  • Configuration Block
  • Libraries, Standard packages
  • Local and Global Declarations
  • Package, Package body
  • Writing Test Benches
  • Assertion based verification
  • Files read and write operations
  • Code for complex FPGA and ASICs
  • Generics and Generic maps
  • Language introduction
  • Levels of abstraction
  • Module, Ports types and declarations
  • Registers and nets, Arrays
  • Identifiers, Parameters
  • Relational, Arithmetic, Logical, Bit-wise shift Operators
  • Writing expressions
  • Behavioral Modeling
  • Structural Coding
  • Continuous Assignments
  • Procedural Statements
  • Always, Initial Blocks, begin ebd, fork join
  • Blocking and Non-blocking statements
  • Operation Control Statements
  • If, case
  • Loops: while, for-loop, for-each, repeat
  • Combination and sequential circuit designs
  • Memory modeling,, state machines
  • CMOS gate modeling
  • Writing Tasks
  • Writing Functions
  • Compiler directives
  • Conditional Compilation
  • System Tasks
  • Gate level primitives
  • User defined primitives
  • Delays, Specify block
  • Testbenchs, modeling, timing checks
  • Assertion based verification
  • Code for synthesis
  • Advanced topics
  • Writing reusable code
  • Re-configurable Devices, FPGA’s/CPLD’s
  • Architectures of XILINX, ALTERA Devices
  • Designing with FPGAs
  • FPGA’s and its Design Flows
  • Architecture based coding
  • Efficient resource utilization
  • Constrains based synthesis
  • False paths and multi cycle paths
  • UCF file creation
  • Timing analysis/Floor Planning
  • Place and route/RPM
  • Back annotation, Gate level simulation, SDF Format
  • DSP on FPGA
  • Writing Scripts
  • Hands on experience with industry Standard Tools
  • Synthesis Concepts
  • HDL Implementation design cycle
  • ASIC Implementation design cycle
  • Sequential design optimization
  • Synchronous Design
  • Asynchronous design
  • Guidelines for reset
  • Synchronous and Asynchronous reset
  • Guidelines for clock structures
  • Gated clocks
  • VHDL synthesis
  • Synthesizable and Non-synthesizable VHDL constructs
  • Verilog Synthesis
  • Synthesizable and Non-synthesizable VHDL constructs
Timing Analysis
  • Static timing analysis
  • Dynamic timing analysis
  • Setup time
  • Hold time
  • Setup and Hold checks
  • Setup and Hold timing analysis
  • Timing paths
  • Clock skew
  • SystemVerilog data types
  • Nets and veriables
  • Modules and processes
  • Interfaces
  • SystemVerilog assertions
  • Module based SystemVerilog Verification
  • Introduction to SystemVerilog classes
  • Randomization in SystemVerilog
  • Functionsla coverage
Verification concepts. Testbench environment development using UVM/OVM methodologies.

Total course duration including major project: 6 months

Course Highlights :

  • Advanced Digital Design And Verilog Coding Techniques
  • Advanced Verification Techniques
  • Synthesis and Static Timing Analysis
  • Floor Planning, Placement And Routing
  • Interview Preparation and Mock Interviews

For more detail please write to

Contact : +91-9824245665

Wednesday 28 August 2013

Xbox One's custom processor has 5 billion transistors !

best_play_to_play Microsoft's upcoming Xbox One gaming console will contain a custom chip the company designed in conjunction with Advanced Micro Devices with the aim of delivering maximum graphics performance, presenters said Monday at Microsoft's Hot Chips conference.

The high-performance, low-power chip has specialized processors beyond the CPU and GPU to handle tasks such as audio processing, video decode and encode and other small game characteristics. The system has 5 billion transistors, and uses an eight-core AMD CPU code-named Jaguar, which is also being used in the Sony's upcoming PlayStation 4. The graphics processor is a Radeon GPU that has been customized for the Xbox One, Microsoft presenters said at the conference in Stanford, California."Almost every aspect has been customized," said John Sell, a hardware architect at Microsoft.The Xbox One system chip also has 500GB of storage, 8GB of DDR3 memory and 47MB of on-die storage that could act as cache, where information will be stored temporarily. The GPU can provide more than a teraflop of peak performance.AMD's x86 CPUs are based on the Jaguar core, which was introduced for PCs, laptops and servers last year. The eight CPU cores are broken into clusters of four cores with a total of 4MB of L2 cache.

"We've made some alterations to the CPU clusters to support coherent bandwidth between clusters...and other processors," Sell said.

dualshock_transp5 The graphics processor supports DirectX 11.1, which is Microsoft's graphics engine that will power games. Microsoft calls the engine 1-plus, a reference to unique control processor features for custom graphics and processing in the Xbox graphics core. "These have been customized to significantly reduce the amount of time, the amount of work, that the CPU has to spend when assembling graphics commands," Sell said. One unique aspect of the chip is a shared memory pool that can be accessed by CPUs, GPUs and other processors in the system. Typically, GPUs and CPUs have different memory systems, but the new features increase the overall addressable memory in the Xbox One. The GPUs and CPUs have also been modified to enable shared memory.Shared memory is also part of a specification being pushed by the HSA Foundation, which wants to blur the line between GPU and CPU memory to make programming easier. plusAMD is one of the founding members of the HSA Foundation, though Sony is also a member, which suggests that shared memory may also be part of PlayStation 4.

The move to x86 architectureA is a big jump for Microsoft, which used a chip based on the Power architecture in its Xbox 360. Sony's PlayStation 4 is also built on x86 chips from AMD. The Xbox One is due for release later this year.Microsoft also shared some details about the Kinect camera, which will come with the Xbox One. The "depth" camera shoots 1080p high-definition video at 30 frames per second, said Patrick O'Connor, senior director of engineering at Microsoft.

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Monday 26 August 2013

Tesla Model S – A Premium Electric Sedan

Tesla Model S- A Premium Electric Sedan

Introducing a car so advanced it sets the new standard for premium performance. At the heart of the vehicle is the proven Tesla powertrain, delivering both unprecedented range and a thrilling drive experience. With a rigid body structure, nearly 50/50 weight distribution and a remarkably low center of gravity, Model S offers the responsiveness and agility expected from the world’s best sports cars while providing the ride quality of a sedan.

teslamodels-autoblog53013Tesla’s advanced electric powertrain delivers exhilarating performance. Unlike the internal combustion engine with hundreds of moving pieces that spark, pump, belch, and groan, the Tesla motor has only one moving piece: the rotor. As a result, Model S acceleration is instantaneous, like flipping a switch. Hit the accelerator. In 5.4 seconds, Model S is traveling 60 miles per hour, without hesitation and without a drop of gasoline.

The Model S suspension system was developed for the unique architecture of Model S. It works in harmony with the rigid and light Tesla platform to provide precision handling and optimum comfort. Unencumbered by an engine, the lightweight front suspension optimizes wheel control. The rear multi-link suspension is designed to seamlessly integrate with the powertrain.

Model S Performance takes electric performance to the next level. Equipped with the 85 kilowatt-hour battery and a high performance drive inverter, Model S Performance accelerates to 60 miles per hour in 4.2 seconds. If driven the same way as Model S, both cars achieve the same efficiency thanks to the unique powertrain design.

Performance Plus takes one of the world's best sedans into supercar handling territory, while also improving ride quality and range. After hundreds of iterations affecting every detail of the suspension, our vehicle dynamics team was able to achieve the rare outcome of simultaneously improving performance, comfort and efficiency. In addition to upgraded dampers, bushings, stabilizer bars and tires (Michelin Pilot Sport PS2), the rear tires are 20 mm wider and staggered for improved acceleration on low grip surfaces.

2013-tesla-model-s-battery-pack-comparison-inline-photo-493548-s-originalModel S sets the bar for electric driving range. Model S is offered with three battery options, each delivering unprecedented range. All three batteries are contained within the same enclosure, integrating with the vehicle in the same way, providing structural, aerodynamic, and handling advantages. All three batteries use automotive-grade lithium-ion cells arranged for optimum energy density, thermal management, and safety.

Model S comes standard with everything you need to plug into the most common 240-volt outlet, standard 120-volt wall outlets and public stations. Using a high-amperage 240-volt outlet, Model S can be recharged at the rate of 100 km range per hour. A fifty-percent charge in thirty minutes can be achieved with a Tesla Supercharger.

Ask Tesla owners how long it takes to charge and they'll say just a few moments. Like they do with a cell phone, most Tesla owners plug in at night. By morning, their battery is completely recharged.

2013-Tesla-Model-S-cockpitAs you approach, the Tesla key commands the door handle to unlock, waiting for a simple tap to present itself. With it in your pocket, Model S turns on as you buckle in to the driver’s seat. The touchscreen, digital instrument cluster, and steering wheel controls seamlessly integrate media, navigation, communications, cabin controls and vehicle data. From the moment you open the door, the high-resolution Model S touchscreen powers on and returns to its last function. The most commonly used controls line the bottom of the screen for easy access any time and connectivity keeps you connected while on the go.

With the All Glass Panoramic Roof, Model S is the only sedan capable of delivering a convertible-like drive experience every day. It's more than a sunroof: the entire roof is constructed from lightweight safety glass. With a simple swipe of the Touchscreen, it opens wider than any other sedan's panoramic roof. On even the hottest days, the innovative glass keeps the cabin comfortable.

Model S is a driver’s car. Behind the wheel, you’ll notice that Tesla has combined meticulous noise engineering with Tesla’s uniquely quiet powertrain to obtain the sound dynamics of a recording studio. The gem of the interior is the 17” touchscreen. It puts rich content at your fingertips and provides mobile connectivity.

With no tailpipe to spew harmful emissions, Tesla vehicles liberate their owners from the petroleum-burning paradigm. They are the only cars to getmore efficient from the moment they're first driven.

Gasoline-powered vehicles and hybrids burn refined petroleum. Tesla vehicles can use electricity however it is produced, be it from coal, solar, hydro, geothermal, or wind power. As the grid shifts to increasingly efficient technologies, Tesla owners reap the efficiency benefits.


  • Head room (front/rear): 38.8/35.3"
  • Leg room (front/rear): 42.7/35.4"
  • Shoulder room (front/rear): 57.7/55.0"
  • Hip room (front/rear): 55.0/54.7"
  • Seating capacity: 5 adults
  • Total cargo volume: 31.6 cu ft
  • Rear cargo volume (seats up/down): 26.3/58.1 cu ft
  • Front trunk cargo volume: 5.3 cu ft
  • Turning circle: 37 ft
  • Curb weight: 4,647.3 lbs
  • Weight distribution (%, front/rear): approx. 48/52


  • Lightweight aluminum body reinforced with high strength, boron steel elements
  • UV and infrared blocking safety glass windshield
  • Rain sensing, adjustable speed windshield wipers
  • Frameless, tempered safety glass front windows
  • Solar absorbing, laminated safety glass rear window with defroster
  • Flush mounted door handles
  • Manual folding side mirrors
  • 19" aluminum alloy wheels with all-season tires (Goodyear Eagle RS-A2 245/45R19)
  • Aluminum roof
  • Xenon headlights with automatic on/off
  • Backlit side turn signals, front side marker lights and rear reflex lights
  • LED rear taillights and high-mounted LED stop lamp


  • Model S is a rear wheel drive electric vehicle. The liquid-cooled powertrain includes the battery, motor, drive inverter, and gear box.
  • 60 kWh microprocessor controlled, lithium-ion battery
  • Three phase, four pole AC induction motor with copper rotor
  • Drive inverter with variable frequency drive and regenerative braking system
  • Single speed fixed gear with 9.73:1 reduction ratio

Suspension, Steering, and Brakes

  • Double wishbone, virtual steer axis coil spring front suspension and independent multi-link coil spring rear suspension
  • Variable ratio, speed sensitive, rack and pinion electronic power steering
  • Electronic Stability Control
  • Traction Control
  • Anti-Lock disc brakes (ABS) with ventilated rotors and electronically actuated parking brake; front: 355 mm x 32 mm; rear: 365 mm x 28 mm


  • 10 kW capable on-board charger with the following input compatibility: 85-265 V, 45-65 Hz, 1-40 A (Optional 20 kW capable Twin Chargers increases input compatibility to 80 A)
  • Peak charger efficiency of 92%
  • 10 kW capable Universal Mobile Connector with 110 V, 240 V, and J1772 adapters


  • Twelve way, power adjustable, heated front seats
  • Hand wrapped microfiber and synthetic leather interior surfaces in black
  • Piano black décor accents
  • Center armrest with two cup holders
  • Open center console storage area
  • Metal interior door handles
  • 60/40 split fold-down second row seats
  • 200 watt, seven speaker stereo system with AM/FM/HD radio. Supports MP3, AAC, and MP4 music formats. System includes four speakers, two tweeters and one center channel speaker.


  • 17" capacitive touchscreen with media, communication, cabin, and vehicle controls
  • Bluetooth wireless technology for hands-free calling and streaming music
  • Three spoke, multi-function steering wheel with tactile controls
  • Tire pressure monitoring system


  • 4 year or 50,000 mile, whichever comes first, new vehicle limited warranty
  • 60 kWh battery has an 8 year or 125,000 mile, whichever comes first, warranty
  • 85 kWh battery has an 8 year, unlimited mile warranty


  • Keyless entry
  • Driver seat detection sensor for start/stop functionality
  • Cruise Control
  • High definition backup camera
  • Manual rear liftgate
  • Power tilt and telescopic steering column
  • Power windows featuring one-touch up and down with resistance reversing to protect against pinched fingers
  • Micro-filter ventilation system with replaceable filters
  • Front LED map lights and rear LED reading lights
  • Front sun visors
  • Front trunk and rear cargo area with keyless open
  • 12 V power outlet
  • Automatic climate control with dual zone temperature settings, air distribution controls and recirculation
  • Glove compartment
  • Wi-Fi ready
  • Dual front USB ports for media and power


  • Eight airbags: head, knee and pelvis airbags in the front plus two side curtain airbags
  • Driver and front passenger seat sensors
  • Driver seat position sensor
  • Three point driver and front passenger safety belts with retractor pretensioners and secondary lap anchor pretensioners and load limiters
  • Three point second row safety belts for all three seats
  • Acoustic front row safety belt warning
  • Rollover crash sensor
  • Crash sensor for high voltage disconnect
  • Three second row LATCH attachments for child seat installations (accommodates three child seats simultaneously: two with LATCH and one with top tether and belt)
  • Rear door child safety locks
  • Interior, manual release mechanism for all doors, front trunk, and rear cargo area
  • Anti-theft alarm and immobilizer system
  • Horn. Beep. Beep.

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Sunday 18 August 2013

Animated Nanofactory in Action


A nanofactory, as the name implies, is a device or system that can assemble products at molecular level.  Products of nanotechnology are already in our midst, but most of these are passive consumer products such as coating materials and pharmaceuticals.  Nanofactories that produce macroscopic active consumer products (such as laptops as depicted in this animation) will be in the realm of science fiction for two more decades.

We know, however, that the building blocks of these nanofactories someday are already here in the form of microelectromechanical systems, or MEMS, which are semiconductor devices with mechanical moving parts.  Today, MEMS applications include those in optical micromirrors for guided-wave optical switching applications and accelerometers for automotive airbag deployment systems, gaming console interfaces, etc.

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Friday 16 August 2013

Verilog and SV Event Scheduler

A simulation timeslot is divided into ordered regions to provide a predictable interaction between design constructs. Verilog event scheduler has four regions for each simulation time as Fig 1.

verilog_even_scheduler Fig 1: Active region is for executing process statements; Inactive region is for executing process statements postponed with a “#0″ procedural delay; NBA region is for updating non-blocking assignments; Monitor region is for executing $monitor and $strobe and for calling user routines registered gor execution during this read-only region.

SystemVerilog adds regions to provide a predictable interaction between assertions, design code and testbench code.

sv_event_schedularFig 2: Preponed region is fora smapling signal values before anything in the time slice changes their values; additional observed region is for assertion evaluation. Re-Active and Re-Inactive regions is for executing assertion action blocks and testbenchh programs; Postponed region is for system tasks that record signal values at the end of the time slice.

SV introduces new verification blocks:

— Program
To have clear sepration between testbench and design, SV introdueces program block, which contains full environment for testbench. It is intended to reduce user-induced races. It executes in the Re-Active region.

— Final
“Final” block is used to print summary information in log file at the end of simulation. It executes at the end of the simulation (after explicit or implicit call to $finish) without delays.

program asic_with_ankit;
  int error, warning;
  initial begin
  //Main program activities…..
  final begin
  $display (“Test is done with %d errors and %d warnings”, error, warning);

— clocking blocks
A clocking block identifies clock signals and captures the timing and synchronization requirements of the blocks being modeled. It supports following features
– Input sampling
– Synchronous events
– Synchronous drives

clocking cb @(posedge clk);
  default input #1step //default timing skew for inputs/outputs
          output #3;
  input dout;
  output reset, data;
  output negedge enable;


clocking_skew Fig 3 clocking skew example

Inputs are sampled at clock edge and outputs are driven at clock edge. Input skew designates sample time before clock edge and output skew designates driving time after the clocking event.

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