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### Top 5 books to refer for a VHDL beginner

VHDL (VHSIC-HDL, Very High-Speed Integrated Circuit Hardware Description Language) is a hardware description language used in electronic des...

## Sunday 26 March 2017

### Understanding real, realtime and shortreal variables of SystemVerilog

This post will help you to understand the difference between real, realtime and shortreal data types of SystemVerilog and its usage.

We faced some issue with real and realtime variable while writing a timing check.
Below is a simplified example of that check.

`timescale 1ns/1fs;
module test;
real a,b;
realtime t1, t2;

initial
begin
#1ns;
t1 = \$realtime;
#1.8ns;
t2 = \$realtime;
b = 1.8;
a = t2 - t1;

if(a == b)
\$display("PASS a = %f b = %f", a,b);
else
\$display("FAIL a = %f b = %f", a,b);

end
endmodule

and here is what we got the display

FAIL a = 1.800000 b = 1.800000

How that happened !!! is really 1.800000 != 1.800000  !!!!

Now let's try something else, instead of using real we use shortreal

`timescale 1ns/1fs;
module test;
shortreal a,b;
realtime t1, t2;

initial
begin
#1ns;
t1 = \$realtime;
#1.8ns;
t2 = \$realtime;
b = 1.8;
a = t2 - t1;

if(a == b)
\$display("PASS a = %f b = %f", a,b);
else
\$display("FAIL a = %f b = %f", a,b);

end
endmodule

Now the result was as expected !!

PASS a = 1.800000 b = 1.800000

To understand this lets go to SystemVerilog LRM. As per LRM

The real data type is from Verilog-2001, and is the same as a C double
The shortreal data type is a SystemVerilog data type, and is the same as a C float.

So float is 32 bit data type and double is 64 bit data type. This sounds cool but still how 1.800000 != 1.800000

No ! it's not only about being 32 or 64 bit data type its more about precision."Precision is the main difference where float is a single precision (32 bit) floating point data type, double is a double precision (64 bit) floating point data type ".

To understand this difference let's go beyond and print the values with more number of digits after decimal point.

In below example we have used both real and shortreal to see the difference.

`timescale 1ns/1fs;
module test;
real a,b;
shortreal c,d;
realtime t1, t2, t3, t4;

initial
begin
#1ns;
t1 = \$realtime;
#1.8ns;
t2 = \$realtime;
b = 1.8;
a = t2-t1;

if(a == b)
\$display("Case1: PASS \na = %1.100f \nb = %1.100f", a,b);
else
\$display("Case1: FAIL \na = %1.100f \nb = %1.100f", a,b);
end

initial
begin
#1ns;
t3 = \$realtime;
#1.8ns;
t4 = \$realtime;
d = 1.8;

c = t2-t1;

if(c == d)
\$display("Case2: PASS \nc = %1.100f \nd = %1.100f", c,d);
else
\$display("Case2: FAIL \nc = %1.100f \nd = %1.100f", c,d);
end

endmodule

Here is what the display is

Case1: FAIL
a = 1.7999999999999998223643160599749535322189331054687500000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
b = 1.8000000000000000444089209850062616169452667236328125000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000

Case2: PASS
c = 1.7999999523162841796875000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
d = 1.7999999523162841796875000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000

It's clearly seen that the 64 bit real variable has more precision that that or 32 bit shortreal variable.

Here one more thing to consider is that we are taking difference of time. Floating point math is not exact. Simple values like 0.1 cannot be precisely represented using binary floating point numbers, and the limited precision of floating point numbers means that slight changes in the order of operations or the precision of intermediates can change the result. That means that comparing two floats to see if they are equal is usually not what you want.

The things will not matter much if you are doing calculations in nanoseconds so we suggest to use shortreal instead of real.

## Sunday 15 January 2017

### 2017 VLSI Symposia on VLSI Techology and Circuits

For the past 30 years, the combined annual Symposia on VLSI Technology and Circuits have provided an opportunity for the world’s top device technologists, circuit and system designers to engage in an open exchange of leading edge ideas at the world’s premier mid-year conference for microelectronics technology. Held together since 1987, the Symposia on VLSI Technology and Circuits have alternated each year between sites in the US and Japan, enabling attendees to learn about new directions in the development of VLSI technology & circuit design through the industry’s leading research and development presentations.

The comprehensive technical programs at the two Symposia are augmented with short courses, invited speakers and several evening panel sessions. Since 2012, the Symposia have presented joint focus sessions that include invited and contributed papers on topics of mutual interest to both technology and circuit attendees. A single registration enables participants to attend both Symposia.

Online paper submission:

Online paper submissions are now open for the 2017 Symposia on VLSI Technology and Circuits, to be held at the Rihga Royal Hotel in Kyoto, Japan from June 5 – 8, 2017. In a departure from previous years, both Symposia (VLSI Technology and VLSI Circuits) will be held on a fully overlapping schedule from June 6 – 8, preceded by Short Courses on June 5.

The deadline for paper submissions to both Symposia is January 23, 2017. Complete details for paper submission can be found online at: http://vlsisymposium.org/authors.html

This year’s Symposia theme is “Harmonious Integration Toward Next Dimensions.” Authors are encouraged to submit papers that showcase innovations that extend beyond single ICs and into the module level, with co-optimization of device technology and circuit/system design, including focus areas in the Internet of Things (IoT), industrial electronics, ‘big data’ management, artificial intelligence (AI), biomedical applications, virtual reality (VR) / augmented reality (AR), robotics and smart cars. These topics will be featured in focus sessions as part of the program.

The Symposium on VLSI Technology seeks technical innovation and advances in all aspects of IC technology, as well as the emerging IoT (Internet of Things) field, including:

• IoT systems & technologies, including ultra-low power, heterogeneous integration, wearable devices, sensors, connectivity, power management, digital/analog, microcontrollers and application processors
• Stand-alone & embedded memories, including technology & reliability for DRAM, SRAM, (3D-)NAND, MRAM, PCRAM, ReRAM and emerging memory technologies
• CMOS Technology, microprocessors & SoCs, including scaling, VLSI manufacturing concepts and yield optimization
• RF / analog / digital technologies for mixed-signal SoC, RF front end; analog, mixed-signal I/O, high voltage, imaging, MEMS, integrated sensors
• Process & material technologies, including advanced transistor process and architecture, modeling and reliability; alternate channel; advanced lithography, high-density patterning; SOI and III-V technologies, photonics, local interconnects and Cu/optical interconnect scaling
• Packaging technologies & System-in-Package (SiP), including through-silicon vias (TSVs), power & thermal management, inter-chip communication, 3D-system integration, as well as yield & test issues
• Photonics Technology & ‘Beyond CMOS’ devices

The Symposium on VLSI Circuits seeks original papers showcasing technical innovations and advances in the following areas:

• Digital circuits, processors and architectures, including circuits and techniques for standalone and embedded processors
• Memory circuits, architectures & interfaces for volatile and non-volatile memories, including emerging memory technologies
• Frequency generation and clock circuits for high-speed digital and mixed-signal applications
• Analog and mixed-signal circuits, including amplifiers, filters and data converters
• Wireline receivers & transmitters, including circuits for inter-chip and long-reach applications
• Wireless receivers & transmitters, including circuits for WAN, LAN, PAN, BAN, inter-chip and mm-wave applications
• Power conversion circuits, including battery management, voltage regulation, and energy harvesting
• Imagers, displays, sensors, VLSI circuits & systems for biomedical, healthcare and wearable applications

Joint Technology & Circuits focus sessions feature invited and contributed papers highlighting innovations and advances in the following areas of joint interest:

• IoT /ULP (Internet of Things / Ultra Low Power) devices: Advanced CMOS processes for ULP, design enablement, design for manufacturing, process/design co-optimization, on-die monitoring of variability and reliability
• New Computing: Artificial intelligence, ‘beyond von Neumann’ computing, machine learning, neuromorphic & in-memory / in-sensor computing
• 2D MOSFETs / New concepts for channel & gate materials: Graphene, MoS2, α-Si / poly-Si or flexible organic materials for ‘More than Moore’ devices
• Emerging memory technology & design: SRAM, DRAM, Flash, PCRAM, RRAM, and MRAM, Memristor, 3D Xpoint memory technologies
• Design in scaled technologies: scaling of digital, memory, analog and mixed-signal circuits in advanced CMOS processes
• 3D & heterogeneous integration: power and thermal management; inter-chip communications, SIP architectures and applications

Best Student Paper Award
Awards for best student paper at each Symposia are chosen based on the quality of the papers and presentations. The recipients will receive a monetary award, travel cost support and a certificate at the opening session of the 2018 Symposium. For a paper to be reviewed for this award, the author must be enrolled as a full-time student at the time of submission, must be the lead author and presenter of the paper, and must indicate on the web submission form that the paper is a student paper.

Sponsoring Organizations
The Symposium on VLSI Technology is sponsored by the IEEE Electron Devices Society and the Japan Society of Applied Physics, in cooperation with the IEEE Solid State Circuits Society.

The Symposium on VLSI Circuits is sponsored by the IEEE Solid State Circuits Society and the Japan Society of Applied Physics, in cooperation with the Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers and the IEEE Electron Devices Society.

Further Information, Registration and Official Call for Papers