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Top 5 books to refer for a VHDL beginner

VHDL (VHSIC-HDL, Very High-Speed Integrated Circuit Hardware Description Language) is a hardware description language used in electronic des...

Wednesday 28 August 2013

Xbox One's custom processor has 5 billion transistors !

best_play_to_play Microsoft's upcoming Xbox One gaming console will contain a custom chip the company designed in conjunction with Advanced Micro Devices with the aim of delivering maximum graphics performance, presenters said Monday at Microsoft's Hot Chips conference.

The high-performance, low-power chip has specialized processors beyond the CPU and GPU to handle tasks such as audio processing, video decode and encode and other small game characteristics. The system has 5 billion transistors, and uses an eight-core AMD CPU code-named Jaguar, which is also being used in the Sony's upcoming PlayStation 4. The graphics processor is a Radeon GPU that has been customized for the Xbox One, Microsoft presenters said at the conference in Stanford, California."Almost every aspect has been customized," said John Sell, a hardware architect at Microsoft.The Xbox One system chip also has 500GB of storage, 8GB of DDR3 memory and 47MB of on-die storage that could act as cache, where information will be stored temporarily. The GPU can provide more than a teraflop of peak performance.AMD's x86 CPUs are based on the Jaguar core, which was introduced for PCs, laptops and servers last year. The eight CPU cores are broken into clusters of four cores with a total of 4MB of L2 cache.

"We've made some alterations to the CPU clusters to support coherent bandwidth between clusters...and other processors," Sell said.

dualshock_transp5 The graphics processor supports DirectX 11.1, which is Microsoft's graphics engine that will power games. Microsoft calls the engine 1-plus, a reference to unique control processor features for custom graphics and processing in the Xbox graphics core. "These have been customized to significantly reduce the amount of time, the amount of work, that the CPU has to spend when assembling graphics commands," Sell said. One unique aspect of the chip is a shared memory pool that can be accessed by CPUs, GPUs and other processors in the system. Typically, GPUs and CPUs have different memory systems, but the new features increase the overall addressable memory in the Xbox One. The GPUs and CPUs have also been modified to enable shared memory.Shared memory is also part of a specification being pushed by the HSA Foundation, which wants to blur the line between GPU and CPU memory to make programming easier. plusAMD is one of the founding members of the HSA Foundation, though Sony is also a member, which suggests that shared memory may also be part of PlayStation 4.

The move to x86 architectureA is a big jump for Microsoft, which used a chip based on the Power architecture in its Xbox 360. Sony's PlayStation 4 is also built on x86 chips from AMD. The Xbox One is due for release later this year.Microsoft also shared some details about the Kinect camera, which will come with the Xbox One. The "depth" camera shoots 1080p high-definition video at 30 frames per second, said Patrick O'Connor, senior director of engineering at Microsoft.

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Monday 26 August 2013

Tesla Model S – A Premium Electric Sedan

Tesla Model S- A Premium Electric Sedan

Introducing a car so advanced it sets the new standard for premium performance. At the heart of the vehicle is the proven Tesla powertrain, delivering both unprecedented range and a thrilling drive experience. With a rigid body structure, nearly 50/50 weight distribution and a remarkably low center of gravity, Model S offers the responsiveness and agility expected from the world’s best sports cars while providing the ride quality of a sedan.

teslamodels-autoblog53013Tesla’s advanced electric powertrain delivers exhilarating performance. Unlike the internal combustion engine with hundreds of moving pieces that spark, pump, belch, and groan, the Tesla motor has only one moving piece: the rotor. As a result, Model S acceleration is instantaneous, like flipping a switch. Hit the accelerator. In 5.4 seconds, Model S is traveling 60 miles per hour, without hesitation and without a drop of gasoline.

The Model S suspension system was developed for the unique architecture of Model S. It works in harmony with the rigid and light Tesla platform to provide precision handling and optimum comfort. Unencumbered by an engine, the lightweight front suspension optimizes wheel control. The rear multi-link suspension is designed to seamlessly integrate with the powertrain.

Model S Performance takes electric performance to the next level. Equipped with the 85 kilowatt-hour battery and a high performance drive inverter, Model S Performance accelerates to 60 miles per hour in 4.2 seconds. If driven the same way as Model S, both cars achieve the same efficiency thanks to the unique powertrain design.

Performance Plus takes one of the world's best sedans into supercar handling territory, while also improving ride quality and range. After hundreds of iterations affecting every detail of the suspension, our vehicle dynamics team was able to achieve the rare outcome of simultaneously improving performance, comfort and efficiency. In addition to upgraded dampers, bushings, stabilizer bars and tires (Michelin Pilot Sport PS2), the rear tires are 20 mm wider and staggered for improved acceleration on low grip surfaces.

2013-tesla-model-s-battery-pack-comparison-inline-photo-493548-s-originalModel S sets the bar for electric driving range. Model S is offered with three battery options, each delivering unprecedented range. All three batteries are contained within the same enclosure, integrating with the vehicle in the same way, providing structural, aerodynamic, and handling advantages. All three batteries use automotive-grade lithium-ion cells arranged for optimum energy density, thermal management, and safety.

Model S comes standard with everything you need to plug into the most common 240-volt outlet, standard 120-volt wall outlets and public stations. Using a high-amperage 240-volt outlet, Model S can be recharged at the rate of 100 km range per hour. A fifty-percent charge in thirty minutes can be achieved with a Tesla Supercharger.

Ask Tesla owners how long it takes to charge and they'll say just a few moments. Like they do with a cell phone, most Tesla owners plug in at night. By morning, their battery is completely recharged.

2013-Tesla-Model-S-cockpitAs you approach, the Tesla key commands the door handle to unlock, waiting for a simple tap to present itself. With it in your pocket, Model S turns on as you buckle in to the driver’s seat. The touchscreen, digital instrument cluster, and steering wheel controls seamlessly integrate media, navigation, communications, cabin controls and vehicle data. From the moment you open the door, the high-resolution Model S touchscreen powers on and returns to its last function. The most commonly used controls line the bottom of the screen for easy access any time and connectivity keeps you connected while on the go.

With the All Glass Panoramic Roof, Model S is the only sedan capable of delivering a convertible-like drive experience every day. It's more than a sunroof: the entire roof is constructed from lightweight safety glass. With a simple swipe of the Touchscreen, it opens wider than any other sedan's panoramic roof. On even the hottest days, the innovative glass keeps the cabin comfortable.

Model S is a driver’s car. Behind the wheel, you’ll notice that Tesla has combined meticulous noise engineering with Tesla’s uniquely quiet powertrain to obtain the sound dynamics of a recording studio. The gem of the interior is the 17” touchscreen. It puts rich content at your fingertips and provides mobile connectivity.

With no tailpipe to spew harmful emissions, Tesla vehicles liberate their owners from the petroleum-burning paradigm. They are the only cars to getmore efficient from the moment they're first driven.

Gasoline-powered vehicles and hybrids burn refined petroleum. Tesla vehicles can use electricity however it is produced, be it from coal, solar, hydro, geothermal, or wind power. As the grid shifts to increasingly efficient technologies, Tesla owners reap the efficiency benefits.


  • Head room (front/rear): 38.8/35.3"
  • Leg room (front/rear): 42.7/35.4"
  • Shoulder room (front/rear): 57.7/55.0"
  • Hip room (front/rear): 55.0/54.7"
  • Seating capacity: 5 adults
  • Total cargo volume: 31.6 cu ft
  • Rear cargo volume (seats up/down): 26.3/58.1 cu ft
  • Front trunk cargo volume: 5.3 cu ft
  • Turning circle: 37 ft
  • Curb weight: 4,647.3 lbs
  • Weight distribution (%, front/rear): approx. 48/52


  • Lightweight aluminum body reinforced with high strength, boron steel elements
  • UV and infrared blocking safety glass windshield
  • Rain sensing, adjustable speed windshield wipers
  • Frameless, tempered safety glass front windows
  • Solar absorbing, laminated safety glass rear window with defroster
  • Flush mounted door handles
  • Manual folding side mirrors
  • 19" aluminum alloy wheels with all-season tires (Goodyear Eagle RS-A2 245/45R19)
  • Aluminum roof
  • Xenon headlights with automatic on/off
  • Backlit side turn signals, front side marker lights and rear reflex lights
  • LED rear taillights and high-mounted LED stop lamp


  • Model S is a rear wheel drive electric vehicle. The liquid-cooled powertrain includes the battery, motor, drive inverter, and gear box.
  • 60 kWh microprocessor controlled, lithium-ion battery
  • Three phase, four pole AC induction motor with copper rotor
  • Drive inverter with variable frequency drive and regenerative braking system
  • Single speed fixed gear with 9.73:1 reduction ratio

Suspension, Steering, and Brakes

  • Double wishbone, virtual steer axis coil spring front suspension and independent multi-link coil spring rear suspension
  • Variable ratio, speed sensitive, rack and pinion electronic power steering
  • Electronic Stability Control
  • Traction Control
  • Anti-Lock disc brakes (ABS) with ventilated rotors and electronically actuated parking brake; front: 355 mm x 32 mm; rear: 365 mm x 28 mm


  • 10 kW capable on-board charger with the following input compatibility: 85-265 V, 45-65 Hz, 1-40 A (Optional 20 kW capable Twin Chargers increases input compatibility to 80 A)
  • Peak charger efficiency of 92%
  • 10 kW capable Universal Mobile Connector with 110 V, 240 V, and J1772 adapters


  • Twelve way, power adjustable, heated front seats
  • Hand wrapped microfiber and synthetic leather interior surfaces in black
  • Piano black décor accents
  • Center armrest with two cup holders
  • Open center console storage area
  • Metal interior door handles
  • 60/40 split fold-down second row seats
  • 200 watt, seven speaker stereo system with AM/FM/HD radio. Supports MP3, AAC, and MP4 music formats. System includes four speakers, two tweeters and one center channel speaker.


  • 17" capacitive touchscreen with media, communication, cabin, and vehicle controls
  • Bluetooth wireless technology for hands-free calling and streaming music
  • Three spoke, multi-function steering wheel with tactile controls
  • Tire pressure monitoring system


  • 4 year or 50,000 mile, whichever comes first, new vehicle limited warranty
  • 60 kWh battery has an 8 year or 125,000 mile, whichever comes first, warranty
  • 85 kWh battery has an 8 year, unlimited mile warranty


  • Keyless entry
  • Driver seat detection sensor for start/stop functionality
  • Cruise Control
  • High definition backup camera
  • Manual rear liftgate
  • Power tilt and telescopic steering column
  • Power windows featuring one-touch up and down with resistance reversing to protect against pinched fingers
  • Micro-filter ventilation system with replaceable filters
  • Front LED map lights and rear LED reading lights
  • Front sun visors
  • Front trunk and rear cargo area with keyless open
  • 12 V power outlet
  • Automatic climate control with dual zone temperature settings, air distribution controls and recirculation
  • Glove compartment
  • Wi-Fi ready
  • Dual front USB ports for media and power


  • Eight airbags: head, knee and pelvis airbags in the front plus two side curtain airbags
  • Driver and front passenger seat sensors
  • Driver seat position sensor
  • Three point driver and front passenger safety belts with retractor pretensioners and secondary lap anchor pretensioners and load limiters
  • Three point second row safety belts for all three seats
  • Acoustic front row safety belt warning
  • Rollover crash sensor
  • Crash sensor for high voltage disconnect
  • Three second row LATCH attachments for child seat installations (accommodates three child seats simultaneously: two with LATCH and one with top tether and belt)
  • Rear door child safety locks
  • Interior, manual release mechanism for all doors, front trunk, and rear cargo area
  • Anti-theft alarm and immobilizer system
  • Horn. Beep. Beep.

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Sunday 18 August 2013

Animated Nanofactory in Action


A nanofactory, as the name implies, is a device or system that can assemble products at molecular level.  Products of nanotechnology are already in our midst, but most of these are passive consumer products such as coating materials and pharmaceuticals.  Nanofactories that produce macroscopic active consumer products (such as laptops as depicted in this animation) will be in the realm of science fiction for two more decades.

We know, however, that the building blocks of these nanofactories someday are already here in the form of microelectromechanical systems, or MEMS, which are semiconductor devices with mechanical moving parts.  Today, MEMS applications include those in optical micromirrors for guided-wave optical switching applications and accelerometers for automotive airbag deployment systems, gaming console interfaces, etc.

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Friday 16 August 2013

Verilog and SV Event Scheduler

A simulation timeslot is divided into ordered regions to provide a predictable interaction between design constructs. Verilog event scheduler has four regions for each simulation time as Fig 1.

verilog_even_scheduler Fig 1: Active region is for executing process statements; Inactive region is for executing process statements postponed with a “#0″ procedural delay; NBA region is for updating non-blocking assignments; Monitor region is for executing $monitor and $strobe and for calling user routines registered gor execution during this read-only region.

SystemVerilog adds regions to provide a predictable interaction between assertions, design code and testbench code.

sv_event_schedularFig 2: Preponed region is fora smapling signal values before anything in the time slice changes their values; additional observed region is for assertion evaluation. Re-Active and Re-Inactive regions is for executing assertion action blocks and testbenchh programs; Postponed region is for system tasks that record signal values at the end of the time slice.

SV introduces new verification blocks:

— Program
To have clear sepration between testbench and design, SV introdueces program block, which contains full environment for testbench. It is intended to reduce user-induced races. It executes in the Re-Active region.

— Final
“Final” block is used to print summary information in log file at the end of simulation. It executes at the end of the simulation (after explicit or implicit call to $finish) without delays.

program asic_with_ankit;
  int error, warning;
  initial begin
  //Main program activities…..
  final begin
  $display (“Test is done with %d errors and %d warnings”, error, warning);

— clocking blocks
A clocking block identifies clock signals and captures the timing and synchronization requirements of the blocks being modeled. It supports following features
– Input sampling
– Synchronous events
– Synchronous drives

clocking cb @(posedge clk);
  default input #1step //default timing skew for inputs/outputs
          output #3;
  input dout;
  output reset, data;
  output negedge enable;


clocking_skew Fig 3 clocking skew example

Inputs are sampled at clock edge and outputs are driven at clock edge. Input skew designates sample time before clock edge and output skew designates driving time after the clocking event.

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Thursday 8 August 2013

NVIDIA Sets Up New Tech Center Near Detroit

audi-r8-light-bluewallpaper-of-car-a-light-blue-audi-r8-gt-free-wallpaper-world-uboyxbtr The new Nvidia Technology Center in Ann Arbor, Mich., will focus on working the IC design company's chips into automotive electronics. While Nvidia made a name for itself with its graphics technologies, the last few years have seen a shift at the company as its watches its Tegra system-on-chip (SoC) division grow."Our new facility will help our growing team of Michigan-based engineers and executives work with automakers and suppliers to develop next-generation infotainment, navigation and driver assistance programs," Nvidia's Danny Shapiro said.

Even with such successes, the automotive industry is still a small part of Nvidia's overall business - but the new technology centre looks to shift that balance. Located in Michigan, a short distance from infamous car-centric Detroit, the centre will concentrate on building technologies specifically for the automotive industry.

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Sunday 4 August 2013

Panasonic with ReRAM mounted microcomputers

panasonic-300x159 Panasonic Corporation today announced that it will start the world's first mass-production of microcomputers with mounted ReRAM, a type of non-volatile memory, in August 2013. Now, Panasonic is taking ReRAM into the mass market with the news that it has become the first company to begin mass production of a product based around the technology. Dubbed the MN101LR series, the microcomputers are being produced from August at a rate of a million units per month using the company's newly-developed 0.18µm ReRAM modules.

Designed for embedded use, the systems are eight-bit microcomputers running at 10MHz with just a few kilobytes of ReRAM available to the user.

This development has the following features:

- The use of the newly developed 0.18 µm ReRAM in microcomputers and low power-consumption processes contributes to longer operational times for customers' products.
- The high-speed, low power-consumption by byte rewriting can easily reduce the amount of EEPROM [3] previously required as part of an external attachment, thereby reducing the system cost.
- The ReRAM to be produced this time around is based on the rewriting principle of a redox reaction of a metal oxide, in which high-speed rewriting and high reliability can be achieved, making it ideal for industrial applications.

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