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Thursday 10 September 2015

UVM Interview Questions - 3

Q21: What is analysis port?

Analysis port (class uvm_tlm_analysis_port) — a specific type of transaction-level port that can be connected to zero, one, or many analysis exports and through which a component may call the method write implemented in another component, specifically a subscriber.

port, export, and imp classes used for transaction analysis.

Broadcasts a value to all subscribers implementing a uvm_analysis_imp.
Receives all transactions broadcasted by a uvm_analysis_port.
Exports a lower-level uvm_analysis_imp to its parent.

Q22: What is TLM FIFO?

In simpler words TLM FIFO is a FIFO between two UVM components, preferably between Monitor and Scoreboard. Monitor keep on sending the DATA, which will be stored in TLM FIFO, and Scoreboard can get data from TLM FIFO whenever needed.

// Create a FIFO with depth 4
      tlm_fifo = new ("uvm_tlm_fifo", this, 4);

Q23: How sequence starts?
start_item starts the sequence

virtual task start_item ( uvm_sequence_item item,  
                                          int  set_priority =  -1,
                                        uvm_sequencer_base  sequencer =  null )

start_item and finish_item together will initiate operation of a sequence item.  If the item has not already been initialized using create_item, then it will be initialized here to use the default sequencer specified by m_sequencer. 

Q24: What is the difference between UVM RAL model backdoor write/read and front door write/read ?

Fontdoor access means using the standard access mechanism external to the DUT to read or write to a register. This usually involves sequences of time-consuming transactions on a bus interface. 

Backdoor access means accessing a register directly via hierarchical reference or outside the language via the PLI. A backdoor reference usually in 0 simulation time.

Q25: What is objection?

The objection mechanism in UVM is to allow hierarchical status communication among components which is helpful in deciding the end of test.

There is a built-in objection for each in-built phase, which provides a way for components and objects to synchronize their testing activity and indicate when it is safe to end the phase and, ultimately, the test end.

The component or sequence will raise a phase objection at the beginning of an activity that must be completed before the phase stops, so the objection will be dropped at the end of that activity. Once all of the raised objections are dropped, the phase terminates.

Raising an objection: phase.raise_objection(this);
Dropping an objection: phase.drop_objection(this);

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