Tasks

Formal Definition

Tasks provide a means of splitting code into small parts. Often tasks consist of frequently used functionalities.

Simplified Syntax

task identifier;

  parameter_declaration;

  input_declaration;

  output_declaration;

  inout_declaration;

  register_declaration;

  event_declaration;

  statement;

endtask

Description

Task definition begins with the keyword task and ends with the keyword endtask. A task should be followed by a task identifier and end with a semicolon. A task can contain a declaration of parameters, input arguments, output arguments, inout arguments, registers and events (these declarations are similar to module items declaration) but they are not required. Net declaration is illegal.

A task can contain zero or more behavioral statements, e.g. case statement, if statement. A begin-end block is required for bracketing multiple statements.

The task enabling statement should be made up of a task identifier and the list of comma-separated task arguments. The list of task arguments should be enclosed in parenthesis. If the task does not contain any argument declarations, then it should be enabled by specifying its identifier followed by a semicolon (Example 2).

The list of task enabling arguments should correspond exactly to the list of task arguments. If a task argument is declared as an input, then a corresponding argument of the task enabling statement can be any expression. If a task argument is declared as an output or an inout then the corresponding argument of the task enabling statement should be one of the following items:

  • Register data types
  • Memory references
  • Concatenations of registers or memory references
  • Bit-selects and part-selects of reg, integer and time registers

Only the last assignment to an output or an inout argument is passed to the corresponding task enabling arguments. If a task has assignments to global variables, then all changes of these variables are effective immediately.

Tasks can enable others tasks (Example 3) and functions. A task may be enabled several times in a module. If one task is enabled concurrently, then all registers and events declared in that task should be static, i.e., one variable for all instances.

A task can contain time-controlling statements. A task does not return a value by its name.

Examples

Example 1

task first_task;
  parameter size = 4;
  input a;
  integer a;
  inout [size-1:0] b;
  output c;
  reg [size-1:0] d;
  event e;
begin
  d = b;
  c = |d;
  b = ~b;
if (!a) -> e;
  end
endtask

This is an example of using parameters, input arguments, inout arguments, output arguments, registers and events within tasks. The 'a' argument is declared as an input and as an integer data type.

'First_task' can be enabled as follows:

integer x;
reg a, b, y;
reg [3:0] z;
reg [7:0] w;
first_task(x, z, y);
first_task(x, w[7:4], w[1]);
first_task(1, {a, b, w[3], x[0]}, y);

When being enabled, the first argument of the 'first_task' should be an integer data type expression, the second should be a 4-bit register expression, and the last argument should be 1-bit register expression.

Example 2

reg a, b;
task my_task; // task definition
begin
  a = 1'b1;
  b = 1'bx;
end
endtask
my_task; // task enabling

If 'my_task' is enabled then it will change the value of global variables 'a' and 'b'.

Example 3

task negation;
  inout data;
  data = ~data;
endtask
task my_nor;
  input a, b;
  output c;
  begin
  negation(a);
  negation(b);
  c = a & b;
  end
endtask

The 'my_nor' task enables negation tasks.

Important Notes

  • A task can contain time-controlling statements
  • A task does not return any value by its name

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