Built-in Primitives

 

Formal Definition

The built-in primitives provide a means of gate and switch modeling.

Simplified Syntax

For and, nand, or, nor, xor, xnor, buf, not

  gate (drive_strength) #(2delays) instance_name[range] (list_of_ports);

For bufif0, bufif1, notif0, notif1

  gate (drive_strength) #(3delays) instance_name[range] (list_of_ports);

For nmos, pmos, rnmos, rpmos, cmos, rcmos, rtranif0, rtranif1, tranif0, tranif1

  gate #(3delays) instance_name[range] (list_of_ports);

For tran, rtran

  gate instance_name[range] (list_of_ports);

  pullup (pullup_strength) instance_name[range] (list_of_ports);

  pulldown (pulldown_strength) instance_name[range] (list_of_ports);

Description

Gate or switch declaration begins with a keyword that determines the type of a gate or switch followed by a strength and delay declaration, name of the instance, range, and a list of connections to the gate or switch ports. The strength and the delay declarations are optional. The name of an instance and a range are also optional. Instantiations of individual gate types are not identical.

and, nand, or, nor, xor, xnor gates

The instantiation of these logic gates (Example 1) can contain zero, one, or two delays. The strength declaration should contain two specified strengths - strength1 and strength0 (seeStrengths for more explanations).

These gates have one output and one or more inputs. The first port on the port list is output port.

and

0

1

x

z

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

1

x

x

x

0

x

x

x

z

0

x

x

x

or

0

1

x

z

0

0

1

x

x

1

1

1

1

1

x

x

1

x

x

z

x

1

x

x

xor

0

1

x

z

0

0

1

x

x

1

1

0

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

z

x

x

x

x

 

nand

0

1

x

z

0

1

1

1

1

1

1

0

x

x

x

1

x

x

x

z

1

x

x

x

nor

0

1

x

z

0

1

0

x

x

1

0

0

0

0

x

x

0

x

x

z

x

0

x

x

xnor

0

1

x

z

0

1

0

x

x

1

0

1

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

z

x

x

x

x

Table 1 Truth tables for logic gates

buf and not gates

The instantiation of these logic gates (Example 2) can contain zero, one, or two delays. The strength declaration should contain two specified strengths - strength1 and strength0 (see Strengths for more explanations).

These gates have one input and one or more outputs. The last port on the port list is an input port.

buf

input

output

0

0

1

1

x

x

z

x

not

input

output

0

1

1

0

x

x

z

x

Table 2 Truth tables for logic gates

bufif1, bufif0, notif1, notif0 gates

The instantiation of these tri-state gates (Example 3) can contain zero, one, two, or three delays. The strength declaration should contain two specified strengths - strength1 andstrength0 (see Strengths for more explanations).

These gates have three ports: the first is an output port, the second is a data port, and the third is a control port. The control port is used to set gates in high-impedance state.

bufif0

control input

 

0

1

x

z

data input

0

0

z

L

L

1

1

z

H

H

x

x

z

x

x

z

x

z

x

x

bufif1

control input

 

0

1

x

z

data input

0

z

0

L

L

1

z

1

H

H

x

z

x

x

x

z

z

x

x

x

Table 3 Truth table for tri-state logic gates

The L and H symbols have a special meaning. The L symbol means that the output has 0 or z value. The H symbol means that the output has 1 or z value. Any transition to H or L is treated as a transition to x.

nmos, pmos, rnmos, rpmos, cmos, and rcmos switches

The nmos switch is used to model N-type MOS (Metal-Oxide Semiconductor) transistor and the pmos switch is used to model P-type MOS (Metal-Oxide Semiconductor) transistor. The rnmos switch is used to model resistive nmos transistor and the rpmos switch is used to model resistive pmos transistor. The cmos switch should be treated as combination of a pmos switch and an nmos switch, which have common data input and data output. The rcmos switch should be treated as combination of an rpmos switch and an rnmos switch, which have common data input and data output.

The instantiation of these MOS switches (Example 4) can contain zero, one, two, or three delays.

The strength declaration is illegal. The nmos, pmos and cmos switches reduce supply strength of the signals to strong strength. Signals with others strengths are passed from input to output without a strength reduction. The rnmos, rpmos and rcmos switches reduce supply and strong strength of signals to pull strength. The pull strength of signals is reduced toweak. The large and weak strength of signals are reduced to medium. The medium strength of signals is reduced to small. Signals with other strengths are passed from input to output without strength reduction.

The nmos, pmos, rnmos, rpmos switches have three ports: the first is an output port, the second is a data port, and the third is a control port.

The cmos and rcmos switches have four ports: the first is an output port, the second is a data port, the third is a n-control port, and the fourth a is p-control port.

pmos

control input

rpmos

0

1

x

z

data input

0

0

z

L

L

1

1

z

H

H

x

x

z

x

x

z

z

z

z

z

nmos

control input

rmos

0

1

x

z

data input

0

z

0

L

L

1

z

1

H

H

x

z

x

x

x

z

z

z

z

z

 

cmos

N control

rmos

0

1

x

z

 

P control

 

0

1

x

z

0

1

x

z

0

1

x

z

0

1

x

z

Data

0

0

z

L

L

0

0

0

0

0

L

L

L

0

L

L

L

1

1

z

H

H

1

1

1

1

1

H

H

H

1

H

H

H

x

x

z

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

z

z

z

z

z

z

z

z

z

z

z

z

z

z

z

z

z

Table 4 Truth tables for MOS switches

Symbols L and H have a special meaning. The symbol L means that the output has 0 or z value. The symbol H means that the output has 1 or z value. Any transition to H or L is treated as a transition to x.

rtranif0, rtranif1, tranif0 and tranif1 switches

The instantiation of these bi-directional pass switches (Example 5) can contain zero, one, two, or three delays.

The strength declaration is illegal. The tranif0 and tranif1 switches reduce supply strength of signals to strong. Signals with others strengths are passed from input to output without strength reduction. The rtranif0 and rtranif1 switches reduce supply and strong strength of signals to pull. The pull strength of signals is reduced to weak. The large and weakstrength of signals are reduced to medium. The medium strength of signals is reduced to small. Signals with other strengths are passed from input to output without strength reduction.

The rtranif0, rtranif1, tranif0 and tranif1 switches have three ports: two bidirectional data ports and one control port (third position on port list).

tran and rtran switches

The instance of these bidirectional switches cannot contain delay and strength declaration.

The tran switches reduce supply strength of signals to strong strength. Signals with others strengths are passed from input to output without strength reduction. The rtran switches reduce supply and strong strength of signals to pull. The pull strength of signals is reduced to weak. The large and weak strength of signals are reduced to medium. The mediumstrength of signals is reduced to small. Signals with other strengths are passed from input to output without strength reduction.

The tran and rtran switches have two bidirectional data ports.

pullup and pulldown sources

The instantiation pullup and pulldown sources cannot contain delay declaration. The pullup can contain only strength1 specification (the strength0 declaration is optional). The pulldown can contain only strength0 specification (the strength1 declaration is optional).

The pullup source places a logic value 1 on connected signals. The pulldown source places a logic value 0 on connected signals.

Examples

Example 1

and (strong1, weak0) (y, i1, i2, i3);

This is a three-input and gate instance with strengths specified. There is no instance name and no delays declaration.

nand #(1,2) gate1 (y, i1, i2);

This is a two-input nand gate instance with two delays specified. The instance name is gate1 and there is no strength specified.

or #1 b[1:0] (y, i1, i2, i3, i4);

This is two instances of two four-input or gates with one delay specified. Names for the instances are b[1] and b[0]. There are no strengths specified.

Example 2

buf (o1, o2, o3, o4, i);

This is the instance of buf gate, which has four outputs and one input.

Example 3

bufif0 (weak1, pull0) #(4,5,3) (data_out, data_in, ctrl);

The bufif0 gate instance with strength and delays is specified. There is no instance name, which is optional.

Example 4

pmos (data_out, data_in, ctrl);
cmos (data_out, data_in, n_ctrl, p_ctrl);

The pmos and cmos switches are instantiated with no delays, strength and instance name declarations.

Important Notes

· Instantiations of gates and switches are different for individual types.

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